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美国留学签证三大类型

发布日期:2017-3-19 阅读量:592


  Types of US Student Visa

  If you’re planning to study abroad in the US – either for a full degree or a shorter period – you’ll need to apply for a US student visa. Here’s a quick guide to the three types of non-immigrant student visas for studying in the US.

  美国学生签证类型:

  如果你计划去美国留学——无论是选择全日制学位专业学习,还是短期学习——你都需要申请美国学生签证。下面是三种不同类型的美国学生签证的简单介绍,希望能够对你所有帮助。

  F Visa

  This type of US student visa is for international students who are intending to pursue an academic degree at an accredited US college or university, or to study English at a university or intensive English language institute. There are three types of F visa:

  F-1 visas for full-time students.

  F-2 visas for dependents of F-1 visa holders (spouse and unmarried children under the age of 21). This includes same-sex married couples.

  F-3 visas for ‘border commuters’ – Mexican and Canadian students who reside in their country of origin while attending part- or full-time school in the US.

  Students with F-1 visas can work on-campus for 20 hours a week or less. Students wishing to work longer hours and off-campus must gain prior authorization from the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) – they may also grant work authorization for Curricular Practical Training (CPT) and Optional Practical Training (OPT) for a total of twelve months, without accruing more than 90 days of unemployment.

  F签证:

  这个类型的美国学生签证,适用于在公认的美国学院或者大学追求学术学位专业学习的国际学生,或者是在某大学或者是强化英语语言机构参加英语学习的国际学生。F签证又可以细分成三个类型:

  F-1签证适用于全日制学生;

  F-2签证适用于F-1签证持有者的非独立人员(配偶或者是21岁以下未结婚的孩子),这也包括同性夫妻;

  F-3签证适用于边境国家的通勤学生——居住在自己的原籍国,但是在美国学校进行全日制或者非全日制学习的墨西哥加拿大学生。

  获得F-1签证的学生每一个星期可以在校内工作最多20个小时,想要工作更长时间或者是想要在校外工作的话,必须从美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)获得预先核淮——他们也可能会授予总计为期12个月的课程实践训练(CPT)以及选择性实践训练(OPT)的工作许可,累计的未雇佣时间不能够超过90天。

  M visa

  The second category of US student visa is for international students who want to engage in non-academic or vocational study or training at an institution in the US. There are three types of M visa:

  M-1 visas for students engaging in vocational or non-academic studies.

  M-2 visas for dependents of M-1 visa holders (as in F-2 visas).

  M-3 visas for ‘border commuters’ as in F-3 visas, but for vocational or non-academic studies.

  M-1 students are admitted to the US for a fixed time period – the length of their training program plus any Optional Practical Training. They must not stay in the US for longer than one year except in the case of extensions due to medical reasons. M-1 visa holders are not allowed to work on- or off-campus while studying and may not change their status to F-1.

  M签证:

  第二种类型的美国学生签证——M签证——适用于想要在美国学校参加非学术性或者是职业学习或训练的国际学生。M签证也可以细分成三种类型:

  M-1签证适用于进行职业或者非学术性学习的学生;

  M-2签证适用于M-1签证持有者的非独立人员(如同F-2签证适用范围);

  M-3签证适用于边境国家的通勤学生——居住在自己的原籍国,但是在美国学校进行职业或者非学术性学习的墨西哥和加拿大学生(如同F-3)。

  M-1学生进入美国学校进行固定时间的学习——他们训练专业的时间长度加上任何可选择的实践训练。他们在美国停留的时间不能够超过1年,除了因为医学原因延长学习时间的情况。M-1签证不允许学生在学习期间进行任何的校内或者校外工作,并且可能不能够改变其签证状态到F-1签证。

  J visa

  Finally, this third type of US student visa is for international exchange visitors participating in programs in the US that promote cultural exchange. Whether it is to obtain medical, business or other training, all applicants must meet the eligibility criteria of the program in question and be sponsored by a private sector or government program. Holders of J visas usually stay in the US for a short period of time, perhaps one or two semesters. There are two types of J visa:

  J-1 visas for exchange students on a relevant exchange program.

  J-2 visas for dependents of J-1 visa holders (as for F-2 visas)

  J-1 visa holders will be subject to the two-year home-country physical presence (foreign residence) requirement if they are part of a government-funded exchange program, doing graduate medical educational or training or if their training is listed in the Exchange Visitor Skills list (i.e. the J-1 visa holder’s home-country has deemed their field of specialized knowledge or skills as necessary to the development of the country). This requirement means J-1 visa holders will need to return to their home country for at least two years at the end of their exchange visitor program.

  J签证:

  最后,美国学生签证的第三种类型就是J签证——适用于为了促进文化交流,在美国学校进行交流访问的国际学生。无论学生是否获得医学、商科或者其他训练,所有的申请者都必须满足该交流项目的资格标准,并且获得一个私人机构或者政府项目的赞助。J类签证持有者通常可以在美国停留很短的一段时间,也许是一个学期或者两个学期。J类签证也可以细分成两种类型:

  J-1签证适用于相关交流项目中的交换生;

  J-2签证适用于J-1签证持有者的非独立人员(正如F-2签证)。

  J-1签证持有者如果是政府资助交流项目的参与者,并且进行研究生医学教育或者训练的话;或者是他们的训练列在交流访问技能清单(例如J-1签证持有者的原籍国已经认定他们的专业知识或者技能领域对于国家发展有很大需要)的话,那么有一个两年的原籍国实体存在要求。这个要求意味着J-1签证持有者在结束其交流访问项目之后,将需要返回其原籍国至少两年。

  Derivative visas

  Holders of F-2, M-2 and J-2 visas are also allowed to study in the US provided they meet their chosen institution’s criteria. They do not have to apply for an F-1, M-1 or J-1 visa, but can apply if qualified.

  J-2 visa holders can enroll as recreational or degree-seeking students, either full- or part-time, and discontinue their program at any time. They can also petition for a change to F-1 student status if they haven’t completed their academic program by the time the principle J-1’s status has ended. However, this is only if the J-1 visa holder is not subject to the two-year home residency requirement.

  F-2 and M-visa holders are not allowed to work, and must secure an appropriate work visa if seeking employment. J-2 visa holders may request work authorization from USCIS by submitting form I-765.

  衍生签证:

  F-2、M-2以及J-2签证持有者如果满足所选美国学校的入学标准的话,也可以在美国进行学习。他们不需要申请F-1、M-1或者J-1签证,但是如果符合要求的话,也可以申请。

  J-2签证持有者可以作为娱乐或者学位追求学生,参加全日制或者非全日制学习,并且在任何时候终止自己的学习。他们也可以申请更改至F-1签证状态,如果他们在J-1签证结束时,没有完成自己的学术专业的话。但是,这仅限于J-1签证持有者没有两年原籍国居住要求的情况。

  F-2以及M-签证持有者不能够留学期间工作,如果想要寻找雇佣机会的话,必须获得适合的工作签证。J-2签证持有者需要通过递交I-765表格从美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)获得工作许可。

 

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